Student Well-Being

Proxy Indicators

Proxy indicators are highly context-specific. They may vary depending on the different cultural traditions and expectations in the particular setting. Proxy indicators may also need to be very different for primary, secondary school or vocational education students, for girls and boys, or even student ability; e.g., whether children can see, hear or write.

For example, a proxy indicator pertaining to children and youth asking questions in class may not be reliable in a context in which, culturally, children are expected to passively accept advice and learning from elders, without question. Ot it may be appropriate for boys, but not for girls, if girls are especially socialized to be passive and unquestioning of adult – and especially male adult – authority.