In summary, understanding and addressing the gender dynamics of education is critical to good program design and development to ensure that all girls, boys, women and men have access to and benefit equally from education. In contexts of crisis, post-crisis and state fragility there are particular challenges faced by girls and women in accessing quality education that is safe and protective. At the same time, education can be a positive, exciting and empowering experience for girls and women. Developing and implementing programming approaches oriented to "strategic protection" are important actions that education staff can take to promote gender equality. It is important to address the underlying causes of girls' and women's non-participation and to seek out and act on opportunities for significant transformation in attitudes and behaviors that can arise in periods of transition and especially post-conflict reconstruction. To do this, and to monitor and evaluate changes brought about through programs, accurate and relevant gender-related and sex-desegregated data are required.