Term Definition


frequent or habitual absence from school


the act of pleading or arguing in favor of something, such as a cause, idea or policy; active support

alternative qualifications

the personal qualities, characteristics, skills and other abilities that make certain individuals very well suited for teaching even if they don‘t have the specific education, formal training and experience; recognition of and building on teachers‘ alternative qualifications can help to strengthen teacher identity; alternative qualifications can motivate teachers and result in enhanced teacher well-being

appropriate methods

chosen according to the principles and standards required to produce “quality" (valid, accurate) data


information gathered before a program begins; baseline data establish the existing conditions in relation to the program objectives, effects and outputs before implementation


a technique of solving specific problems, amassing information, stimulating creative thinking, developing new ideas, etc., by unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion


Classroom Assistants (see Classroom Assistants definition)

child-friendly classrooms

schools or classrooms that are welcoming to children and conducive to their learning

Classroom Assistants

individuals who assist teachers in the classrooms in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, ensuring student attention, maintaining order and discipline in the classroom, tidying up the classroom, preparing teaching aids, etc.


accomplished by working together

corporal punishment

physical punishment such as spanking, hitting, smacking, etc.

deficit model

refers to a situation that is automatically treated as a problem without consideration of the positive qualities ”or potential” an individual, a situation or a place may have; the term could, for example, refer to the negative attitude and assumptions that teachers may have about a quiet child in the class who never answers any questions or shows off what he or she might know

drop out

to quit or withdraw from school


concerns women and men taking control over their lives: setting their own agendas, gaining skills, building self-confidence, solving problems and developing self-reliance


the number of persons in a class or in a school


refers to one person taking advantage of another for personal gain


focal point


gender-based violence (see gender-based violence definition)


the characteristics that a culture or society decides are either masculine or feminine; not necessarily based on biology alone (read about gender roles for more information).

gender equality

the equal valuing by society of both the similarities and differences between women and men, and the equal valuing of the varying roles that women and men play

gender equity

refers to ensuring fairness and basic equal rights to women and men

gender mainstreaming

gender mainstreaming is a dual approach that implies incorporating a gender equality perspective into all policies, at all levels and at all stages, by all actors normally involved in policy-making

gender roles

the "appropriate" social roles, responsibilities, expectations and behavior of men, women, boys and girls as defined by the culture or society and by the times in which people live

gender-based violence

an unfair treatment directed against another person because of his/her gender, or sexual orientation harassment; unwanted and offensive behavior


unwanted and offensive behavior


taking into account many or all factors


internally displaced person


International Labor Organization


Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies

intellectual stimulation

something mentally engaging and interesting


instruction driven by the child's interests, needs and learning styles

log frame

a plan of action with defined goals, delineated objectives, expected outputs and means of verification; a process for monitoring project indicators


Monitoring & Evaluation


Means of Verification


Ministry of Education

Means of Verification

the continuous practice of critically looking at experiences and actions and applying new knowledge to practice; the process of studying methods and determining what works well


Master Teacher Trainer


the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods

personal attachments

feeling close to people; bonding

proxy indicators

highly context-specific, second-hand measurement that will reliably represent another measure

reflective practice

the continuous practice of critically looking at experiences and actions and applying new knowledge to practice; the process of studying methods and determining what works well

relationships with peers

relationships with children of about the same age and with similar backgrounds, usually from the same or nearby communities


reproductive health


sexual abuse and exploitation


how a person feels about himself or herself in the moment


how a person thinks about himself or herself overall

sense of belonging

feeling accepted and at ease

sense of belonging

feeling accepted and at ease

sense of control

feeling able and empowered in a given situation

sense of safety

feeling free from harm, injury, danger or risk


the biological state of being male or female

sexual abuse

the forcing of unwanted sexual activity by one person on another through the use of threats or coercion


School Management Committee


a person or group that has an investment, share or interest in something


any individual receiving instruction or training in a range of learning environments such as formal and non-formal schools, literacy and numeracy classes, vocational training and even apprenticeships


to put something together; to make something out of multiple parts


in Healing Classrooms, teachers refers to a diverse group of individuals facilitating learning, development and protection activities in IRC's education interventions; this may include primary school teachers, child-friendly spaces facilitators, vocational trainers or a variety of other educators and facilitators in the full range of education interventions

teacher tentativeness

a negative force in quality education; a result of weak teacher identity and of low levels of both teacher motivation and teacher well-being, teacher tentativeness has negative implications for the quality of children‘s learning and on their well-being


an emotional or psychological injury


the number of workers hired by an establishment to replace those who have left in a given period of time


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA)

a self-selected group of people who pool their money into a fund from which members can borrow; money is paid back with interest, causing the fund to grow; the regular savings contributions to the group are deposited with an end date in mind for distribution of all or part of the total funds (including interest earnings) to the individual members, usually on the basis of a formula that links payout to the amount saved; this lump sum distribution provides a large amount of money that each member can then apply to his/her own needs